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what is a statement of stockholders equity

The total number of issued shares, as contained in the statement of shareholders’ equity, lets the company determine per share earnings for each accounting period. The statement of shareholders’ equity is one of the main sections of the balance sheet. Also known as owner’s equity, shareholders’ equity summarizes the ownership structure of a company. It is usually posted after the assets and liabilities sections of the balance sheet.

What accounts can be found on a statement of stockholders equity quizlet?

What accounts can be found on a statement of stockholders' equity? Treasury stock, accumulated other comprehensive income, and retained earnings.

A company’s statement of shareholders’ equity is a financial statement that shows the changes in a company’s equity during a reporting period. The statement of shareholders’ equity includes information about the company’s beginning shareholders’ equity, changes in shareholders’ equity during the reporting period, and the company’s ending shareholders’ equity. The statement of shareholders’ equity is important because it shows how a company’s equity has changed over time and can be used to help investors understand a company’s financial condition. The statement of shareholders’ equity (or shareholders’ equity report) is a financial statement that shows the changes in equity of a business over a given period. This statement presents the balance sheet items in detail and splits them into their sources (i.e., changes in shareholders’ equity).


The stockholders’ equity is designed to show the financing that has been provided for the business from its owners. This can help potential investors understand the ownership structure for particular business. In this article we will review changes and structures of the statement of stockholders’ equity for our simulated business WH3 Corp. additionally we will also discuss the retained earnings, dividends, and stock splits. When a business is initially launching most business owners will file their business as a corporation, which is recognized as a legal entity separate from its owners in matters of personal liability.

For instance, those who gave a loan to the company would want to know how the company is maintaining the minimum equity levels to meet the debt agreements. Advisory services provided by Carbon Collective Investment LLC (“Carbon Collective”), an SEC-registered investment adviser. Bob started off his business with nothing in capital or retained earnings in the company. After this date, the share would trade without the right of the shareholder to receive its dividend. To record this as a journal entry, we will debit the earnings account and credit the dividends payable account.

Who uses a statement of stockholders’ equity?

This statement is important because it shows how the company’s net worth has changed over time. Preferred statement of stockholders equity stocks, also known as preferred shares, are the stock shares paid in dividend to the shareholders.

what is a statement of stockholders equity

The downside of this type of equity is that they do not have a say in any decisions taken by the company. The treasury stock business is the stock that has been repurchased from investors.

Statement of shareholders’ equity

All the information required to compute shareholders’ equity is available on a company’sbalance sheet. Current assets are assets that can be converted to cash within a year (e.g., cash, accounts receivable, inventory). Long-term assets are assets that cannot be converted to cash or consumed within a year (e.g. investments;property, plant, and equipment; and intangibles, such as patents). This figure is calculated by subtracting total liabilities from total assets; alternatively, it can be calculated by taking the sum of share capital and retained earnings, less treasury stock. Retained earnings is the amount of money left in the business after the shareholders are paid dividends. With dividend stocks, shareholders are entitled to a percentage of the company’s profits.

The other classification is the Par Value, which is the legal value that has been assigned to the individual shares of stock for the corporation. The stockholder’s equity statement captures the movement of retained earnings. In the above example we see that the payment of cash dividends of $10,000 had an unfavorable effect on the corporation’s cash balance. This is also true of the $20,000 of cash that was used to repay short-term debt and to purchase treasury stock for $2,000.

Applications in Financial Modeling

The $15,000 is a positive amount since the money received has a favorable effect on the corporation’s cash balance. The $30,000 received from selling an investment also had a favorable effect on the corporation’s cash balance. You can gain additional insights regarding the cash flows from operating activities from our Explanation of the Cash Flow Statement. Experienced financial people will review the net cash provided from operating activities.

The first source is the money originally and subsequently invested in the company through share offerings. The second source consists of the retained earnings the company accumulates over time through its operations. In most cases, especially when dealing with companies that have been in business for many years, retained earnings is the largest component.

What is the Difference between the Balance Sheet and the Statement of Shareholders’ Equity?

It is generally best for any business other than possibly a sole proprietorship to have a statement of stockholders’ equity. However, the statement of stockholders’ equity can provide a powerful tool to view how operations affect the value of a business. The statement of shareholders’ equity enables shareholders to see how their investments are faring. It’s also a useful tool for companies in helping them make decisions about future issuances of stock shares. Current liabilities are debts typically due for repayment within one year (e.g. accounts payable and taxes payable).

Bookkeeping services Fort Lauderdale

Clients say this knowledgeable firm provides outstanding service and treats their customers like family. They are also considered warm, caring, pleasant, and professional in all their dealings. As a small business owner, strong accounting support from a financial professional is essential. But, to run your business well you need more than just numbers from your CPA firm.

How I Took a Vacation and Launched a Company – Inc.

How I Took a Vacation and Launched a Company

Posted: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 11:27:45 GMT [source]

Complete Small Business Solutions, Fort Lauderdale is your answer to expert bookkeeping services to ensure that all your accounting transactions are properly maintained. We look into various financial activities of a small business, thus relieving the owner from having to keep track of such activities and ensuring they can concentrate on activities directed towards growing their business. We are amongst the best accounting & CPA firms in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

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Bookkeeping Fort Lauderdale services are an important part of any business. By keeping track of expenses and income, bookkeepers help businesses stay organized and make informed decisions. There are many different bookkeeping services available, so it is important to find one that fits the needs of your business. Step into our office in Fort Lauderdale, FL right away for a free small business consultation on what kind of assistance you need with your accounting books.

Bookkeeping is a headache. For Lauderdale-based Xendoo seeks to provide relief – Miami Herald

Bookkeeping is a headache. For Lauderdale-based Xendoo seeks to provide relief.

Posted: Mon, 19 Aug 2019 07:00:00 GMT [source]

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With easy access to reviews and direct contact with Bookkeepers, you can be confident with your choice. Help us refine your search by telling us your requirements and we’ll contact service providers in your area to help you. By organizing your financial records, a bookkeeping service can help you avoid late fees and penalties from the IRS. This can make tracking your finances much easier and helps to ensure accuracy. This will make it easier to track expenses and ensure that you have the documentation necessary to file your taxes correctly.

We can also provide you with reports on your financial health. These reports will show you where your money is going and how much you spend. We can also help you identify areas of your business that are not performing as well as they should be. Chief and his team formed of young specialists The Difference between Bookkeeping vs. Accounting Although most people bookkeeping and accounting may seem similar, it is important to note the difference between the two. We had a lot of accumulated work and she was able to clean and organized all the transactions that were posted wrongly.

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They will also be able to offer advice on how to improve your accounting procedures. At Reliable Bookkeepers Fort Lauderdale, we are the most trusted bookkeeping service in the area. We have a team of experienced professionals dedicated to providing our clients with the best possible service. We will work with you to tailor our services to your specific needs, and we will always be available to answer any questions you may have. John Folson, CPA, LLC serves the community of Fort Lauderdale with its accounting needs. John Folson, CPA is a QuickBooks Certified ProAdvisor and a member of the AICPA, and the team of CPAs can also help individuals and organizations applying for a healthcare license with the Florida AHCA.

Bookkeeping services Fort Lauderdale

We are fluent in English and Spanish and have clients ranging from individual entrepreneurs to small neighborhood bakeries and marine hardware installation companies. Whatever your business model or platform, you can trust us to help you do everything from cash management to employee payrolls. Our company is known in Fort Lauderdale, FL for providing bookkeeping & accounts management along with Payroll Management. But, where we truly excel is at suggesting & implementing the best strategies to help save on your income tax. If you have been searching for income tax planning & preparation services near me, you have come to the right place. That’s where you need certified and experienced Bookkeeping Fort Lauderdale experienced professionals to maintain accurate financial books so you can focus on running your business and maximizing your profits. It’s no secret that good bookkeeping is the key for maintaining a successful business.

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peerform bbb

The algorithm logic was based on the acoustic emissions captured by the multi-channel receiver array during each transmit pulse and processed prior to the subsequent exposure. The driving output of the phased array was increased from pulse-to-pulse until spatially-coherent subharmonic microbubble activity was detected, at which point the sonication was terminated automatically. A flowchart outlining the calibration algorithm logic is given in Figure 1C. We found that they actually do accomplish both of the goals. This platform is therefore best for individuals who are facing down financial difficulties, need to refinance their personal or small business debt, or who have recently experienced a life-changing event. The company Peerform has done well enough at this to garner quite a bit of attention from the media in favor of its platform and strategy. They have already been featured inTime Magazine, on Lend Academy, and on Alley Watch.

Having a cosigner can make the repayment process quite easy for you. The biggest benefit of having a cosigner is that they increase your chances of getting an approval. If they have a better credit score than you, your chances will increase tremendously. The biggest advantage of Peerform is that it provides loans to low credit scores as well.

Variable point spacing during multi-point exposures

Please appreciate that there may be other options available to you than the products, providers or services covered by our service. You can choose to have Peerform debit the appropriate amount from your bank account or send them a check in the mail. Keep in mind that checks are subject to a processing fee of $15.

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Peerform provides personal loans to borrowers with less-than-perfect credit. The peer-to-peer lender connects borrowers with investors in their loans.

Compare other personal loan providers

Brains were removed, postfixed overnight at room temperature, and paraffin embedded. Axial sections (5 μm thick) were collected at 250 μm intervals and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stained. Transducer element dimensions of multi-frequency dual-mode array. Don’t put all of your funds peerform bbb into one investment opportunity. Lenders are not required to set the interest rate they receive. Peerform is imminently concerned with the safety and security challenges that face this booming industry. To that effect, they have instituted high-tech Fraud Prevention Systems.

All information or ideas provided should be discussed in detail with an advisor, accountant or legal counsel prior to implementation. If Peerform is a great place to get a loan, it’s also a rich source of investment opportunities. Once you complete the registration form, you will be informed immediately if you qualify for a loan, and what the rate for that loan will be. has an advertising relationship with the companies included on this page. All of our content is based on objective analysis, and the opinions are our own.

Who Should Not Choose Peerform

As with rivals Prosper and Lending Club, Peerform does not do any lending directly from its own coffers. Rather it puts borrowers and investors together on its own Online platform. According toexperts, the default risk for P2P loans is between 2% and 7%, depending on the borrower’s creditworthiness and if the platform offers any insurance to the investor. Kiva has microloans as low as $400, but investors may choose to finance as little as $25. It considers shared characteristics such as if both are military veterans. This helps build rapport between the borrower and investor, thereby increasing the chance of repayment.

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The platform usually handles everything from underwriting the loan to distributing the funds and collecting payments. This makes the entire lending and borrowing process easier for all parties involved. You can make repayments online or by check, but be aware that Peerform charges a check processing fee of $15. There’s also a returned check fee of $15 for an unsuccessful payment and a late fee if your payment is more than 15 days late of either 5% of your missed payment or $15 — whichever is greater. Peerform has been making personal loans consistently since 2014. However, it now focuses on acquiring institutional lenders to fund whole loans rather than individual investors spreading out their portfolios across numerous loan fractions.

Recommended P2P Lending Companies:

The platform had notified them that they were pre-qualified but after they submitted all of their personal data, the company claimed that they didn’t qualify. The first Peerform complaint I’d like to share is this one. It claims that the company is only stealing its users’ personal data and does nothing else.

Loan terms are up to five years and are paid in monthly installments. Founded in 2014, Best Egg has given upwards of $11 billion in consumer loans in 47 states. The platform’s process is heavily streamlined and it endeavors to connect the right investor with the right borrower.

KeyBank personal loan review: Secured and unsecured personal loan…

Information displayed includes the interest rate, grade, amount, purpose, and days left to complete funding. The above specifications aren’t restrictive and are fairly standard in the lending industry. This means they are very similar to a credit card in which collateral is not required. There are no prepayment penalties in the event that you want to make a partial or full early payment on your loan. Personal loan selection – After completing the online registration, the platform will review your information, and offer loan terms or alternatives. All loans made through Peerform are for a term of 36 months. All loans are also fixed rate, installment loans that will be fully paid off at the end of the term.

With a consolidation loan, you can pay down multiple high-interest credit cards and simplify your finances by making one monthly payment instead of several. If you’re considering this, it’s a good idea to take a look at debt consolidation pros and cons. At The College Investor, we want to help you navigate your finances. To do this, many or all of the products featured here may be from our partners. Any investing information provided on this page is for educational purposes only.

how to calculate sales revenue accounting

Revenue is defined as the amount of money a business receives in a period. Most of the revenue generated by a business is from selling a product or service. Cost of goods sold is found on a business’s income statement, one of the top financial reports in accounting. An income statement reports income for a certain accounting period, such as a year, quarter or month.

Revenue is the income generated from normal business operations. Revenue is most simply calculated as the number of units sold multiplied by the selling price. Increasing sales revenue does not guarantee that a company is financially healthy, but it definitely helps a company to how to calculate sales revenue accounting have more options and opportunities. For a manager or business owner, sales revenue is one of the most critical numbers to look at when evaluating the financial status of a business. If this number is not on target, there will be many financial challenges within the company.

Sales Revenue vs. Cash Flow

For a firm starting point from which to determine whether your company’s sales are indeed exceeding its costs, you should calculate and analyze its annual revenue. The simplest definition of total revenue is that it is the amount of money a business receives during an accounting period from the sale of its products or services. It also can be defined as total sales for a business that are backed up by its cash receipts. For every sale, there must be a source document, which, in most cases, is a cash receipt. Your company’s sales represent amounts you are paid for selling a product or service.

how to calculate sales revenue accounting

Take your total cash or accrual sales for the period and add them up to figure your gross revenue. Subtract any refunds or returns on sales and you have net revenue. Net sales are the result of gross sales minus returns, allowances, and discounts.

Sales Revenue Explained

Sales revenue can be listed on the income statement as either the gross revenue amount or net revenue. Calculating the income you made from your sales is more complicated. Suppose you’re drawing up the company’s income statement for the past quarter. The sales revenue formula will also help in examining the trend in sales revenue over a time which shall enable the company or the business owners to understand their own business much better.

How do you calculate revenue accounting?

Revenue is another word for the amount of money a company generates from its sales. Revenue is most simply calculated as the number of units sold multiplied by the selling price. Because revenues do not account for costs or expenses, a company's profits, or bottom line, will be lower than its revenue.

The most important thing to remember about sales revenue is that it must come from the business’ core operating activities. The sale of bears that result in cash for the business is sales revenue. Government revenue includes all amounts of money (i.e., taxes and fees) received from sources outside the government entity. Large governments usually have an agency or department responsible for collecting government revenue from companies and individuals.

What Does Sales Revenue Include?

Get the lowdown on how to calculate total revenue and ways to use it to benefit your business. First, it marks the starting point for arriving at net income. From revenue, cost of goods sold is deducted to find gross profit. Depreciation and SG&A expenses are deducted from gross profit to find the operating margin, also known as EBIT. EBIT less interest expense is pre-tax income, and pre-tax income minus taxes is net income.

Discover the products that 31,000+ customers depend on to fuel their growth. In some industries, especially in software, revenue is a big factor in calculating valuations because it can signal growth or an increase in market share. Some loans and opportunities to compete for government contracts are only available to businesses under a certain revenue threshold. Price / Sales is sometimes used as a substitute for a Price to earnings ratio when earnings are negative and the P/E is meaningless. Though a company may have negative earnings, it almost always has positive revenue. Both trend and industry analysis yield valuable insights into the financial health of your business. If using the accrual method, a business needs to simultaneously record the cost of goods and the sale of said goods.

Wrapping Up: Increasing Sales Revenue

Finally, the business’s inventory value is subtracted from the beginning value and costs. This will provide the e-commerce site with the exact cost of goods sold for its business. The cost of goods made or bought is adjusted according to change in inventory. For example, if 500 units are made or bought but inventory rises by 50 units, then the cost of 450 units is cost of goods sold. If inventory decreases by 50 units, the cost of 550 units is cost of goods sold. This formula shows the cost of products produced and sold over the year.

Sales revenue minus cost of goods sold is a business’s gross profit. Cost of goods sold is considered an expense in accounting and it can be found on a financial report called an income statement. There are two ways to calculate COGS, according to Accounting Coach.

How to calculate annual revenue

Using such a method would incur a higher net revenue than if they were to simply sell the product or service at its base cost. Because revenues do not account for costs or expenses, a company’s profits, or bottom line, will be lower than its revenue.

how to calculate sales revenue accounting

Revenue from the physical store would be reported as retail sales revenue. Notably, Sales Revenue includes all money earned by a business during a given period—regardless of whether or not that money is actually received by the company. That’s one of the biggest differences between Sales Revenue and Cash Flow, which includes only the cash that flows into a business’ accounts.

Sales and Cash Flow

You may have other employees but they don’t make decisions for the whole company. As a sole proprietor you are ultimately responsible for all sales revenues and finding ways to increase these sales revenues. It is important to note that we are only looking at the gross revenue. This means this is simply how much money you brought in before expenses. You would still need to calculate the net revenue in order to determine how much money you actually earned. In our imaginary business, let’s say that you have a garden business.

how to calculate operating cycle

The operating cycle is also known as the cash-to-cash cycle, the net operating cycle, and the cash conversion cycle. A company’s organizational chart can influence the operating cycle. It is critical that different leaders communicate clearly to keep things moving. For example, Kieran’s sales manager needs to let the billing department know quickly that the store has 30 days to pay, so the billing department can follow up and keep things on track. Manufacturing of the product − This is the phase where the raw materials are converted to finished goods. Fixed assets are used to get the finished product in this phase.

DIO, also known as DSI, is calculated based on the cost of goods sold, which represents the cost of acquiring or manufacturing the products that a company sells during a period. This metric takes into account how much time the company needs to sell its inventory, how much time it takes to collect receivables, and how much time it has to pay its bills. A shorter operating cycle is more favorable as it means the company has enough cash to maintain operations, recover investments and meet various obligations. In contrast, if a business has a longer operating cycle, it means the company requires more cash to maintain operations.

Example of How to Use CCC

The operational cycle formula and analysis follow logically from these. To be more exact, payable turnover days measure how quickly a corporation can pay off its financial commitments to suppliers. Investors, lenders, and other financing sources often assess a company’s cash conversion cycle to determine its financial health and, in particular, its liquidity.

This is calculated by using the days payables outstanding calculation. The best option then is not to use the operating cycle, but to use the cash conversion cycle, which is about converting the credit of the company into cash. That is, it looks at how long it takes the company to make money when they buy their inventory with credit. If they take too long to pay invoices, it means that most of your cash and working capital will be tied up. This may prevent you from taking up new customers, particularly if your business works with heavy inventory demands . This metric estimates the amount of working capital that your business needs in order to grow or maintain.

Cost Accounting

The faster the company generates cash, the more it’ll be able to pay off any outstanding debts or expand its business accordingly. The notion of the operational cycle reflects a company’s genuine liquidity. Investors can determine a firm’s investment quality by tracking its OC’s historical record and comparing it to peer groups in the same industry. The operational cycle is significant because it may notify a business owner how soon goods can be sold. As a result, various management actions can influence a company’s operational cycle.

What are the components of operating cycle?

Operating cycle has three components of payable turnover days, Inventory Turnover days and Accounts Receivable Turnover days. These come together to form the complete measurement of operating cycle days. The operating cycle formula and operating cycle analysis stems logically from these.

It also allows a company to quickly acquire cash to use for reinvestment. A long business operating cycle means it takes longer time for a company to turn purchases into cash through sales. The bottom line is, the cash conversion cycle will give you an idea of how long it takes for your business to collect cash payments from customers. It, therefore, helps you determine whether the process of cash flowing in and cash flowing out is efficient. A low CCC cycle creates a positive cash flow while a high CCC cycle puts you at risk of a negative cash flow.

How To Calculate the CCC

This can help the business avoid any loans that other business, with longer cash conversion cycle, have to take to finance their working capital needs. A bank’s business policy is different from that of a manufacturing company. The manufacturing company needs fixed assets and they consider these assets in the calculation of operational efficiency in the long run.

how to calculate operating cycle

An operating cycle is the difference in days between the sale of a good from inventory and the days it takes to receive payment on that sale. operating cycle formula An operating cycle is a total number of days between inventory being sold and the days to receiving the payable for that inventory.

How Investors Use the Cash Flow Cycle

If two companies have similar values for return on equity andreturn on assets, it may be worth investing in the company that has the lowest CCC value. It indicates that the company is able to generate similar returns more quickly. Inventory management, sales realization, and payables are the three key ingredients of business. If any of these goes for a toss—say, inventory mismanagement, sales constraints, or payables increasing in number, value, or frequency—the business is set to suffer. Beyond the monetary value involved, CCC accounts for the time involved in these processes that provides another view of the company’s operating efficiency. Firstly, determine the average inventory during the year, calculated as the average of opening and closing inventory from the balance sheet. Now, the inventory period can be calculated by dividing the average inventory by COGS and multiplying by 365 days.

The working capital cycle tells you the amount of capital needed to keep the company solvent, whereas the cash cycle is the time it takes to complete the purchase-to-sales process. Long working capital cycles mean a business has capital tied up for extended periods of time. It is possible to have a negative cash conversion cycle which means that the business is collecting money for inventory before paying for it. This is seen when companies presell a product to determine the interest in the product and fund the purchase of the inventory.

It has to wait for some time to sell the goods in the market after purchasing raw materials and other necessary items and producing the finished goods. What are some examples of businesses with high or low operating cycles? When a company—or its management—takes an extended period of time to collect outstanding accounts receivable, has too much inventory on hand, or pays its expenses too quickly, it lengthens the CCC. A longer CCC means it takes a longer time to generate cash, which can mean insolvency for small companies. Boosting sales of inventory for profit is the primary way for a business to make more earnings. If cash is easily available at regular intervals, one can churn out more sales for profits, as frequent availability of capital leads to more products to make and sell. A company can acquire inventory on credit, which results inaccounts payable .

how to calculate operating cycle

Finally, the operating cycle can also impact a company’s relationships with its creditors. The longer the cycle, the higher the chance that a company will default on its debt payments. This can lead to higher interest rates and fees, and could ultimately damage a company’s credit rating. This metric takes into account the time needed to sell its inventory, the time required to collect receivables, and the time the company is allowed to pay its bills without incurring any penalties. Inventory days is also an indication of stock movement which happens inside the company. Debtor outstanding days is often regarded as one of the major tools to analyze the product demand and the importance of the particular product compared with its peers.

An OC is the number of days it takes for a company to receive inventory, sell goods, and earn cash from the sale of merchandise. However, you can also calculate the ratio by dividing the cost of products sold by the average inventory. The operating cycle is the number of days between when you buy inventory and when customers pay for the inventory. The cash conversion cycle is the number of days between when you pay for inventory and when you get paid by your customers for the inventory. Is your cash conversion cycle impeding you from improving your business cash flow? One way of creating a positive cash flow is by saving on banking costs and using proceeds from your profits to improve the cash conversion cycle.

What is the leadership style of Apple?

Tim Cook took over the job of CEO of Apple from Steve Jobs in 2011 and has now helmed the company for over a decade. His managerial style is said to be democratic, in sharp contrast to Jobs's autocratic style. Cook fosters cooperation among Apple's talent and encourages consensus-building among high-level employees.

Direct, Indirect Speech

An Indirect speech is also called a reported speech, or secondary speech means the speech, which has spoken indirectly. Learning to use proper grammar is an important part of studying the French language. One element of that is direct and indirect speech, or when you are speaking about what someone else has said. When the answer can be given in yes or no – Do not use the word ‘that’ in the reporting speech, Remove question mark and quotation mark and use ‘if’ or ‘whether’. The quotation marks are the primary indication of a direct speech. Therefore, it is crucial to take them out if you are forming an indirect one.

Direct, Indirect Speech

The speaker’s words or statements are mentioned in a single phrase pattern or direct discussion. The speech has two main types, Direct speech, and Indirect speech, respectively. If we want to describe the speech of some other people with other people in our own words, that speech is called a Reported speech or Narration. There are a few grammar rules that you should know when it comes to these styles of speech and this French grammar lesson will walk you through the basics. When the answer has to be given in detail – Remove question mark and quotation mark, and neither use that nor if.

Definition of Direct Speech

It is also called straight speech or quoted speech, which is spoken or written directly in the text by the speaker, writer, or the first person, who is going to speak with anyone with him. There are many occasions in which we need to describe an event or action that happened, and very often that includes repeating what someone said. Such occasions can include a social situation as well as in a work email or presentation. In order to describe what people said there are two different types of speech – direct speech and indirect speech . In indirect speech, you are referencing what another person has said without quoting them directly. For direct and indirect speech worksheets and activities to help your child put the theory into practice look through our punctuation worksheets.

What is indirect speech examples?

Indirect speech is speech which tells you what someone said, but does not use the person's actual words: for example, 'They said you didn't like it', 'I asked her what her plans were', and ' Citizens complained about the smoke'.

Past indefinite is changed into past perfect tense. Present perfect is changed into the past perfect tense. You really have to think about when the direct speech was said. He told us not to smoke.Click here for an exercise to practise reported requests and orders. Click here for a mixed tense exercise about practise reported statements.

Table of Contents

She asked me to pass the milk.Would you mind coming early tomorrow? He saidthathe had completed his assignment the previous day. In the English language, there are certain ways to express the spoken words between two people. A phrasal verb is a verb that has two or sometimes three words.

How do you change direct to indirect and direct to indirect speech?

  1. Remove comma and inverted commas.
  2. Put "that" between the reporting and reported speeches.(it is optional to put "that" between the reporting and reported speech)
  3. Change the 1st letter of reported speech into small letter except for "I"

When we use indirect speech, we’re reporting what was said. Let’s now look at some specific examples to learn how to change speech from direct to indirect. These examples will also reinforce the difference between direct and indirect speech. When converting a direct request to an indirect request, writers need to pay attention if the request is a request with an indicator such as please, or if it is a command or order. If the request contains a word such as please, the backshift verb in the indirect speech can be a verb such as asked. If the request is a command or an order, then the backshift verb can be a verb such as told or ordered. Also, writers need to change the pronouns accordingly.

Using “Said” with Direct and Indirect Speech

This page is very useful.thank you very I am clear in directed speech. My girlfriend asked whether she liked horror films. The teacher said, I have often told you don,t play with fire. This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional. You requested your father to grant him leave for some time.

Sam was excited to see a broomstick and a black pointy hat in the back of his teacher’s car. He told his friend Louise about this and that he thought their teacher might be a witch. Louise had to point out that the things in their teacher’s car were for the school play. Do you know there are four types of sentences?

Direct and Indirect Questions

Since there are no quotation marks in indirect speech, only the first letter of the sentence must be written in capital letter. Want to test your English grammar skills in a fun way? Take this direct and indirect speech quiz to see how well you know about these two types of reported Direct, Indirect Speech speech. There are different ways in which we can report a speech, that is, either by using direct or indirect speech. In the case of indirect speech, the report uses the same words as the speaker, whereas, in indirect speech, we do not use the speaker’s exact words.

Could a Less Complex Larynx Have Enabled Speech in Humans? – The Scientist

Could a Less Complex Larynx Have Enabled Speech in Humans?.

Posted: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 20:19:44 GMT [source]

The original words are modified and/or interpreted as opposed to being quoted. The sentences are placed between two quotations. When writers write about phrases or sentences a source has said, they can use either direct speech or indirect speech.

Direct Speech Indirect Speech Lisa asked, ”What did you eat for lunch? To change this question to indirect speech, we changed the verb to past tense and kept the question word. What if the direct speech is already written in the past tense? If the sentence is written in simple past tense, you just remove the punctuation and change the verb to past perfect to make it indirect speech. When writers repeat words or phrases directly from a source, they are using direct speech .

When should is used as an auxiliary, the form does not change either. Indirect speech conveys a report of something that was said or written rather than the exact words that were spoken or written. It is used in many United Nations documents, including summary records and reports on the proceedings of intergovernmental bodies. Indirect speech is not enclosed in quotation marks. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, you should change the tense of the verb inside the reported speech into its past tense. This is not necessary if the reporting verb is in the present or future tense. In linguistics, indirect speech is a grammatical mechanism for reporting the content of another utterance without directly quoting it.

For yes/no questions, the word “if” must be inserted in the indirect speech. However, for other questions, the question word stays in place. The verb tense is further back in the indirect speech; backshift must be applied to the verbs when converting direct speech to indirect speech. For example, “want” in direct speech will become “wanted” in indirect speech. In reported or indirect speech we must also pay attention to the use of pronouns.

Direct, Indirect Speech

When converting a direct question to an indirect one, the subject and verb often have to be inverted. An indirect statement or question can replace the direct object of a verb that is related to thought or communication. If the direct speech is written in simple past tense, you just remove the punctuation and change the verb to past perfect to make it indirect speech. When converting speech from direct to indirect, you must change the present tense verbs to the past tense and remove any quotation marks or commas. Direct speech, sometimes called quoted speech, is the speech that is repeated verbatim or quoted from the original source. Direct speech is always placed inside quotations. Direct speech can be a statement, a question, or a request.

Other Verb Form Changes in Reported Speech

Direct speech can be used in virtually every tense in English. You can use it to describe something in the present tense – to express something that is happening in the present moment, or make it feel like it is happening right now. Direct speech includes the writer’s interpretation or paraphrase of what someone has said. As a member, you’ll also get unlimited access to over 84,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Jennifer taught 9th grade ELA and AP Literature for over 8 years.

Reported speech is a speech that is always in an inverted comma or quotation marks. When we report a question we normally use the verb ‘ask’. As with the verb ‘to tell’, the verb ‘to ask’ is normally followed by an object pronoun, though it is possible to omit it. Indirect speech tends to be more complicated than direct speech because it requires certain changes . There are three primary changes that may need to be made. The line of speech ends with a comma, exclamation mark or question mark. My brother said that he had gone to school the previous day.

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Adams and Deebo Samuel joined him with top-10 overall finishes and Justin Jefferson just missed the cut with the 11th-most points scored. Is the consensus 1.01 and some familiar running backs are still going early in the first round—but more and more pass-catchers have worked their way into the top 12 picks compared to recent years. The loss of Davante Adams will likely affect Green Bay’s offense significantly. Could Matt LaFleur tailor the 2022 version to heavily feature Aaron Jones and A.J.

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Best Fantasy Options for WR2, WR3

Brandon Thorn specializes in analyzing both offensive and defensive line play. What draft slot you’re picking from can impact how you strategize for your draft. Jack Miller details how to approach each round when you’ve landed a top-four pick in 2022 drafts.

As you begin your 2022 Fantasy football draft prep, be sure to check out the 2022 Fantasy football cheat sheets from the proven computer model at SportsLine. Last year, SportsLine’s model accurately predicted that Titans wide receiver Julio Jones was being dramatically overvalued. He was being drafted around in the fifth round on average, but SportsLine predicted he wasn’t even close to being one of the top 20 wide receivers. Jones wound up turning in an incredibly disappointing stat line, catching 31 passes for 434 yards and one touchdown. It is a global company that operates in North America and some other markets.

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SI Fantasy’s Michael Fabiano has Kupp ranked just above his ADP at No. 5 overall and he also has Jefferson one spot higher than ADP at No. 7. Don’t let the sticker price scare you away from taking not only a first-round receiver, but doing so early on.

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Now, SportsLine has simulated the entire NFL season 10,000 times and released its latest Fantasy football rankings 2022, along with plenty of sleepers, breakouts and busts.Head to SportsLine now to see them. Rounding out the first-round wideouts are Jefferson , Ja’Marr Chase , Adams and Stefon Diggs . If Kupp’s ADP holds, he will become the highest-drafted receiver since Brown’s No. 3 ADP in 2017 (it peaked at No. 1 in 2016). The battles within the trenches have a huge impact on the outcomes of NFL games.

How to find proven 2022 Fantasy football rankings

Gibson is being drafted before D’Andre Swift, Josh Jacobs and Elijah Mitchell, but that trio is projected to finish ahead of Gibson in SportsLine’s Fantasy football rankings 2022. The model is powered by the same people who generated projections for all three major Fantasy sites, adp run and it beat human experts last season when there was a big difference in ranking. The projections update multiple times daily, so you’re always getting the best Fantasy football advice. His ADP is trending upward, along with fellow rookie WRs Jalen Tolbert and Romeo Doubs.

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Not only is Kupp bucking that trend with such an early ADP, but the draft position of the WR2 is matching that of the first receiver selected in recent years. There were disappointing signs as well, including the fact that Gibson scored fewer than 12 points in PPR leagues seven times. Washington’s backfield is going to be more crowded this year, as the team selected Brian Robinson in April’s draft.

Fantasy Football Rankings 2022: Busts from NFL model that called Julio Jones’ disappointing season

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The company is considered to be one of the leading providers of business outsourcing solutions. It offers a wide range of such services as HR, payroll, tax and benefits administration. SportsLine is also extremely low on a running back coming off the board in the third or fourth round on average of 2022 Fantasy football drafts. Kupp led all fantasy players with 439.5 points scored last season, the most ever by a wide receiver. Antonio Brown led all players in points back in 2014, but Kupp blew those numbers out of the water. After Kupp’s historic season, he and other top wideouts are seeing their average draft position skyrocket. We provide payroll, global HCM and outsourcing services in more than 140 countries.

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Mike Leone provides context on these recent ADP movements and explains how to approach them in drafts. If you are a former ADP tax filing client and have an agency notice please send it directly to They will create a tracer and work with the federal, state, or local tax agency on your behalf. Discover a wealth of knowledge to help you tackle payroll, HR and benefits, and compliance. See how we help organizations like yours with a wider range of payroll and HR options than any other provider. Manage labor costs and compliance with easy Time & Attendance tools. For advanced capabilities, Workforce Management adds optimized scheduling, labor forecasting/budgeting, attendance policy, leave case management and more.

Whether you operate in multiple countries or just one, we can provide local expertise to support your global workforce strategy. Last year, 56 percent of Amon-Ra St. Brown’s receptions, 61 percent of his receiving yards and 100 percent of his touchdowns came in the final six games of the regular season. In Philadelphia, another rookie, DeVonta Smith, had nearly identical reception and yardage ratios over an eight-game stretch from Weeks 4 through 11.

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